Free-radical mediated stannylcarbonylation of azaenynes provides a general [n + 1]-type annulation approach leading to α-stannylmethylene lactams. The cyclization is unusual in its breadth, covering 4-exo, 5-exo, 6-exo, 7-exo, and 8-exo modes.
Free-radical mediated cyclizative carbonylations of azaenynes were carried out using TTMSS as a radical mediator to compare the efficiency and the stereochemistry with those using tributyltin hydride. Using a substrate concentration of 0.1 M, the reactions gave good yields of α-silylmethylene lactams having four to seven-membered rings. The observed E-diastereoselectivity of the resulting vinylsilane moiety is in sharp contrast to the Z-selectivity observed during the analogous carbonylation using tributyltin hydride. When hexanethiol was used as the radical mediator, α-thiomethylene lactams were formed with E-favoring stereoselectivity again. Ab initio and DFT molecular orbital calculations on the stability of E and Z products were carried out for a set of five-membered methylene lactams bearing SnH3, SiH3, and SMe groups. The distinct thermodynamic preference for the Z-isomer was only predicted for the Sn-bearing lactam. A steric effect due to the bulky (TMS)3Si group is proposed for the E-selectivity observed in the TTMSS-mediated reaction.
4-[(Trimethylstannyl)diphenylsilyl]butanoyl radical, arising from the corresponding 3-(stannylsilyl)propyl radical and CO, undergoes an SHi reaction at Si with extrusion of trimethyltin radical to give silacyclopentanone. The parent 3-(stannylsilyl)propyl radical was also found to isomerize to (3-stannylpropyl)silyl radical via a 1,4-Sn shift from Si to C with a rate constant of 9.3 × 104 s–1 at 80 °C. Ab initio and DFT MO calculations support a front-side attack mechanism.
A perfluorohexane layer regulates the rate of reagent transport in the bromination and chlorination of alcohols. A fluorous triphasic U-tube method is effective for lighter reagents; the thionyl chloride layer (yellow) vanishes, and the chlorides are obtained from the right top organic layer in the chlorination of alcohols.
Phase-vanishing (PV) method was applied to Friedel-Crafts acylations of aromatic compounds with tin tetrachloride as a Lewis acid. The reaction proceeded smoothly and acylation products were obtained in good yield. Parallel, four different Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions were carried out successfully based on the present PV method.